# Basic Fractions

A fraction is a measure of sharing .

Example

What fraction of these counters is yellow ?  one eighth or one in eight of these counters is yellow

Common fractions are written in the form  The top number (numerator)  is divided (÷) by
The bottom number ( denominator)

A proper fraction has a smaller numerator
than denominator. Examples

3       32
4       37

An improper fraction has a larger numerator, the top is larger than the bottom. These are often called top heavy fractions.

Examples

13          39
4           37

wholes, halves, thirds fifths

## Simplifying fractions  Examples  What if you don’t know your tables ?
Try dividing top and bottom by 2, 3, 5, or 10  Alternatively

(This method uses prime factors )

• Divide by each prime number in turn, until you cannot divide exactly by that number. Continue until you reach 1.
• Write the number as the product of its prime factors.
• Cancel out terms
• Multiply

Example

simplify   ## Converting improper  fractions to mixed numbers

Divide the numerator (top) by  the denominator (bottom)
Write the quotient, then put  the remainder over the denominator.
Simplify  if possible.

Example More examples   ## Converting mixed numbers to improper fractions

Times the whole number by the denominator (bottom),
Write this answer on top of the denominator.

Examples  ## Calculating fractions of amounts Examples     Learn Algebraic fractions